The bioscience and healthcare industry is one of the world’s heaviest R&D investors – R&D is the lifeblood of many companies operating in this space. Yet the relative depth of our understanding of the human body and its underlying molecular processes lags far behind our knowledge of (for example) building aircraft or cars. A proposed new biological intervention can have unexpected negative and positive consequences, irrespective of whether the original intention succeeds. The hurdles imposed by regulators and payers are increasing all the time. And the journey to market is very long – a lot of unanticipated information and events will emerge along the way. Hence Bioscience R&D projects are costly, complex and unpredictable. Even small improvements in how they are managed can eventually generate major benefits.